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Replacement stands for the use of methods to replace animal experiments, such as cell cultures, organs-on-a-chip or so-called in-silico models, i.e. the computer-assisted modeling of biological processes.



Refinement refers to methods that reduce or avoid pain, suffering, and distress for laboratory animals, such as through improved analgesia or more modern housing systems.

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Reduction means keeping the number of animals to a minimum while maintaining the information gain, for instance through careful statistical calculations and the use of imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance or positron emission tomography.

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"If we are to use a criterion for choosing experiments to perform, the criterion of humanity is the best we could possibly invent.

The greatest scientific experiments have always be the most humane."


- W. Russell and R. Burch: The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, 1959

We want to welcome you on the webpage of the Gesellschaft zur Förderung von alternativen Biomodellen (The RepRefRed Society). The RepRefRed Society devotes itself to support the implementation of the 3Rs (reduction, refinement and replacement of animal experiments according to Russell and Burch 1959). With a purposeful and active exchange of information among scientists a reduction (reduction of animals in experiments), a refinement (refinement of animal welfare) as well as a replacement (replacement of animal experiments by alternative methods) should be achieved.


If you are interested in our vision, please get in contact with us!

In addition to the tasks mentioned above, the RepRefRed Society was entrusted with the task of establishing the Austrian 3R Center, funded by the Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Research, over the next few years.




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Gesellschaft zur Förderung von Alternativen
Biomodellen (The 3R Society)
Postfach 0014
A-8036 Graz